1850s Peru, Lima, Panama structures by Ephraim George Squier

KorbenDallas

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#1
Came across an interesting book published by Harper & Brothers in New York in 1877. It is titled - Peru. Incidents of travel and exploration in the land of the Incas, and was authored by Ephraim George Squier. The book contains some fairly interesting images of various structures observed by the author around 1850s. Basically, wanted to hear your opinion on what Mr. Squier observed 170 years ago. Who do you think might have contributed to the existence of those buildings?

Ephraim George Squier
Ephraim George Squier.jpg

1821-1888
  • Squier was born in Bethlehem, New York, the son of a minister of English heritage and his Palatine German wife. In early youth he worked on a farm, attended and taught school, studied engineering, and became interested in American antiquities. The Panic of 1837 made an engineering career unfeasible, so he pursued literature and journalism. He was associated in the publication of the New York State Mechanic at Albany 1841-1842. In 1843-1848, he engaged in journalism in Hartford, Connecticut and then edited the Chillicothe, Ohio weekly newspaper the Scioto Gazette.
  • In 1849 he was appointed special chargé d'affaires to all the Central American states, and negotiated treaties with Nicaragua, Honduras, and San Salvador. In 1853 he made a second visit to Central America to examine a line for a projected interoceanic railroad, and to make further study of the archaeology of the country. In 1856 he received the medal of the French Geographical Society for his researches. In 1858, he married Miriam Florence Folline who had recently had a previous marriage annulled.
  • About 1860, he became editor-in-chief for Frank Leslie's publishing house, and supervised the publication of the first two volumes of Frank Leslie's Pictorial History of the American Civil War. In 1863 Squier was appointed U. S. commissioner to Peru, where he made an exhaustive investigation of Inca remains and took numerous photographs of them. He later gave a series of 12 lectures on "The Inca Empire" for the Lowell Institute for their 1866-67 season. In 1868 he was appointed consul-general of Honduras at New York, and in 1871 he was elected the first president of the Anthropological Institute of New York. He conducted ethnological studies, especially in Nicaragua, Honduras and Peru.
  • On returning from Peru, he continued working for Frank Leslie, but gave it up when his health failed. In 1873, his wife divorced him, and married Leslie a year later. In 1874 his health became so seriously impaired as to preclude further original research, and though he subsequently recovered sufficiently to direct the final preparation and revision of his work on Peru for publication, the affection resulted in his death. He was a member of numerous historical, archaeological, and scientific societies. He died in Brooklyn, New York.
The Builders
allegedly
inca_buildres_1.jpg


Peru, Panama, Lima...
Incidents of travel and exploration in the land of the Incas
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View_Cemetery_Lima.jpg The_Rampart_Panama.jpg symbolic_slab.jpg incas_bath.jpg fortress_walls.jpg View_Pachacamac.jpg seats_in_rock.jpg sacred_rock_Manco_capac.jpg ruins_at_landing.jpg Pachacamac_Arch.jpg inti_huatana_pisac.jpg houses_near_virracocha_temple.jpg aqueduct_rodadero.jpg fortress_piquillacta.jpg Gateway_cemetery_rear.jpg Gateway_cemetery_front.jpg temple_sun_cusco_walls.jpg a_palace_of_the_inca_chambers.jpg
- Peru. Incidents of travel and exploration in the land of the Incas
  • the book has multiple illustrations not related to architecture. Highly recommend to take a look at those.
- E. G. Squier - Wikipedia

*****
KD: I'm anything but expert on the Inca culture, but really... are we being told that Incas built structures like these? Arches, Columns, etc?

Wondering if all of these have survived since Mr. Esquier visited their sites. One of the images clearly states "Demolishing Huaca, Limatambo"
 

aceofarms

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#2
Very interesting definitely looks like ruins of a recent catastrophe everyone seemed to be 'exploring' until very recently. One thing I've always wondered is how this information is presented in other countries? Do people in Peru read this same book on the history and exploration of their own culture for example? Or is this just a 'western' exploration. Do they source from their own local historians and writers, language barriers would make this incredibly hard to research though. I always find it weird how we 'discover' or 'explore' everything as if no one else already knew about it.

Also a bit off topic, but looking at all these nicely done drawings, when did we go from having no dimension in art to artists drawing modern level art depth? Even though alot of famous older paintings and drawings look 'lush' in the colour scheme and everything, the complexity of whats going on in the picture only really starts happening once you hit the 18th century, even though this is just sketched out, the imagery is well done (imo) if you go into google and go down the centuries in art 19th 18th 17th etc it all pretty much looks from the same time period, than suddenly we get religious murial type pictures from 14th and below. Do you think something like this is worth its own topic and research? @KorbenDallas
 
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KorbenDallas

KorbenDallas

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#3
Even though alot of famous older paintings and drawings look 'lush' in the colour scheme and everything, the complexity of whats going on in the picture only really starts happening once you hit the 18th century, even though this is just sketched out, the imagery is well done (imo) if you go into google and go down the centuries in art 19th 18th 17th etc it all pretty much looks from the same time period, than suddenly we get religious murial type pictures from 14th and below. Do you think something like this is worth its own topic and research?
I think it definitely is. We are all screwed up in this regard. Take a look at the allegedly 1551 map at the bottom of the OP. Things are tremendously mixed up, as far as qualities and many other things go.
 

esgee1

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#4
I think people who are interested in their history would read such books. But, most people are too busy with their day-to-day lives to even think about it. Except for us here on this forum. ;)

Brien Foerster lives in Peru, and has eight years of YouTube videos where he visits and investigates a lot of the sites in the drawings you posted above. He also hosts tours of these sites as well. His videos are worth checking out when you have the time. His channel is a treasure trove of info. He also travels to Egypt and other ancient sites and makes videos about those places too. He also has a website where he posts photos: Hidden Inca Tours.

Some videos of his I've enjoyed:
The Catastrophe Of 12,000 Years Ago That Erased History
Lost History Of Humanity Playlist
 

WildFire2000

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#5
It looks to be a mish-mash of 2 different styles, honestly. You have the columns and arches, then you have the far less sturdy and less h-mash of 2 different styles, honestly. You have the columns and arches, then you have the far less sturdy and more easily demolished square entryways. To me it appears, once again, that a civilization moved in and built on the old bones of the previous occupants, not quite having the same level of technology or architectural knowledge, not to mention their own style of art and whatnot, to match and refurbish what was there, not completely.

It's all amazing, I always found the Mayans and Incas fascinating, but it's been decades since I've read any of their history and such.
 

esgee1

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#6
That's exactly it. Civilizations building upon ruins of prior civilizations. It seems that the closer you get to present day the ruins become less sophisticated.

When I was younger fresh out of high school, I had a chance to travel around Europe. I can remember when descending down into the metro (subway systems) of major cities like Paris, there would be cavities enclosed in glass displaying ancient roman ruins and artefacts. Under the city!
 
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KorbenDallas

KorbenDallas

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#7
It's all amazing, I always found the Mayans and Incas fascinating, but it's been decades since I've read any of their history and such.
Pretty sure I'm not the only one who thinks that Incas, Mayas, Aztecs, etc, had nothing to do with the construction of these objects.

Yet, who produced those arches and columns? I think this thread is related to the other 3.
 

Ice Nine

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#8
We have old, really old, then not so ancient and then the European look constructions much later. Ancient construction seems to mostly be the huge construction and it just looks industrial to me. Historians like to call everything a Temple, or Temple complex. I don't buy that at all.

This is what we see at Puma Punku and I think it is very ancient. this is an extremely sophisticated building technique. I think it was a mineral processing plant at one time, areas they refer to as sunken plazas look like settling ponds for the extraction of gold or other minerals. Heap leap extraction. I'll get back to that at another time, it needs it's own thread. oh wait there is one. I think at one time our earth was a planet wide mining operation, stripping it of vast amounts of minerals and natural resources.

Could our planet Earth be one huge quarry?

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Heap-leach+extraction+is+when+large+piles+of+crushed+ore+are+sprayed+with+a+alkaline+cyanide+s...jpg

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Then to add to the confusion we have the next generation of ruins, how many years apart?? who the hells knows. I think this was after the mining operation was over and whoever was mining left Earth or moved off someplace else and they destroyed their processing plant, hence the jumbled up ruins at Puma Punku.

a_palace_of_the_inca.jpg

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Ice Nine

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#10
What makes us think that some of those are thousands of years old as opposed to, let’s say, 500-700 only?
It's just how I see things and feel about time on Earth. I'm firmly entrenched in the camp that believes we have been here for millions of years, in some form or another. Maybe not humans exactly like us today, but populated nevertheless by us or somebody else with advanced technology. This isn't a conclusion I came to over night by any means, I've been actively seeking and searching for answers and explanations for decades. So I can't offer up anything in particular to say, look, this says it all.

I also too believe some major funny business has been going on with our more recent timelines, things just don't jive. But my millions of years feeling doesn't in anyway preclude the current timeline conundrum or vica versa. I know I probably sound like a broken record, but we have so many out of place things to decipher we have to somehow separate them all out. I always use my simple jigsaw puzzle analogy, we have pieces of so many puzzles jumbled together, it makes it almost impossible to get a handle on things. I've been sorting and categorizing places for a long time, unfortunately for my own benefit, so I have nothing concrete to provide, just my thoughts on the subject for now.

Except recently I found a Russian researcher who blew my mind with his ideas starting with the laughable "cart ruts". This guy makes more sense to me about way back in time than anything else I've ever read, he definitely struck a cord with me and my line of thinking. I've believed they were ancient vehicle tracks long before I found him.

Neogen (15-6 million years ago) road and track global network in Mediterranean
 
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#11
On my blog I am just busy with a series of posts on Peru, and with some riddles of Cusco architecture, so I also came upon the book of Ephraim Georges Squier. I know the region of Cusco very well. A remark on the aqueduct.
squier-aqueduct.png

It is still there, but the upper part has been damaged. The construction is not mentioned in touristic information. Squier says that the aqueduct is modern, but that the wall on the left is Inca. Sure, the aqueduct does not belong to the megalithical "Inca civilisation". The ingenious water systems of the ancient Incas have a different style. But the Spaniards did not build aqueducts for water supply. On our side of the world the megalithical civilization has been followed by the Greco-Roman civilization which came to and end with the great catastrophe (which I continue to date in 1350-1450), and then was resumed until about 1800. I begin to have the impression that also in Cusco the megalithical period was followed by a classical but pre-colonial period.
 
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