Egyptologist, carve us a vase: stoneworking tools and methods

KorbenDallas

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#1
"The methods employed by the Egyptians in cutting the hard stones which they so frequently worked, have long remained undetermined. Various suggestions have been made, some very impractical; but no actual proofs of the tools employed, or the manner of using them, have been obtained.

Flinders Petrie
father of modern archaeology
Flinders_Petrie.jpg

1853 – 1942

The typical method of working hard stones - such as granite, diorite, basalt, etc.- was by means of bronze tools; these were set with cutting points, far harder than the quartz which was operated on. The material of these cutting points is yet undetermined; but only five substances are possible - beryl, topaz, chrysoberyl, corindum or sapphire, and diamond. The character of the work would certainly seem to point to diamond as being the cutting jewel; and only the considerations of its rarity in general, interfer with this conclusion." - Petrie's Comments

egyptian_masons.jpg

Egyptology
Some universities and colleges offer degrees in Egyptology. In the United States, these include the University of Chicago, Brown University, New York University, Yale University and Indiana University. There are also many programs in the United Kingdom, including those at the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge, Swansea University, the University of Liverpool, and the University of London. While Egyptology is widely studied in continental Europe, only Leiden University offers English taught degree programs in Egyptology. Societies for Egyptology include:
  • The Society for the Study of Ancient Egypt
  • The Society for the Study of Ancient Egyptian Antiquities, Canada
  • Sussex Egyptology Society Online
  • Egypt Exploration Society
Let's take Yale and Oxford. So, who are the scholars teaching future proponents of the Ancient Egyptian concept?
With the small fry above, let's mention a couple contemporary behemoths of the Ancient Egyptian discipline:
  • Zahi Hawass
220px-President_Barack_Obama_tours_the_Pyramids_and_Sphinx_with_Secretary_General_of_the_Egypt...jpg
Zahi Hawass is an Egyptian archaeologist, an Egyptologist, and former Minister of State for Antiquities Affairs. He has also worked at archaeological sites in the Nile Delta, the Western Desert, and the Upper Nile Valley.
  • Salima Ikram
salimaikram.jpg
Salima Ikram is a professor of Egyptology at the American University in Cairo, a participant in many Egyptian archaeological projects, the author of several books on Egyptian archaeology, a contributor to various magazines and a frequent guest on pertinent television programs.
  • KD: do the above scholars and educators teach the truth, or merely provide deceiving theories and pseudo-scientific guesses?
Stone Cutting / Carving
One area for which the Egyptians are particularly famous, of course, is their stone working. A particularly controversial issue is how the ancient Egyptians were able to cut and bore through solid granite - which is considerably more difficult to do than cutting through softer, sedimentary rock such as limestone or sandstone.

carvers.jpg

The mainstream archaeological view is that it was done with copper, bronze, and wooden tools used by Egyptian masons today to cut granite. Others, however, have suggested that it was done with more advanced equipment that is yet to be discovered. For the time being, the balance of evidence seems to suggest the mainstream view that primitive metal and wooden tools used by common stone masons were sufficient for cutting through granite.

ancient_egyptian_masonry_tools.jpg

Reproduction Ancient Egyptian stone mason’s tools used for carving demonstrations.

chisel.jpg

Stone vessels were one of the most common items of funerary equipment used by the ancient Egyptians. The oldest examples are found in Lower Egypt at the settlement of Merimde Beni Salamais, dating to the Merimden period over 6000 years ago, and exhibit a low level of technical competency in their manufacturing (Hoffman 1979). During the rest of the Predynastic period (c. 4000-3000 BC) the quality of the manufacturing increased dramatically. The late Predynastic period of Upper Egypt was generally characterized by an increasing shift away from pottery of fine craftsmanship to stone vessels for use in tombs. This may reflect a shift in the direction of consumer demands of the elite, with an emphasis on exotic luxury goods for the afterlife, and the increasing economic difference between the ruling class and the rest of the populous (Hoffman 1979). As a result stone vessel manufacturing reached a high level of technical competency during the Early Dynastic (c. 3000-2700 BC) and Old Kingdom (c. 2700-2200 BC) periods, were they were made in very large numbers. After the Old Kingdom, stone vessels continued to be made, but on a much lesser scale.

The Early Dynastic period exhibits a wide degree of experimentation with different types of stone, including vein quartz, which was the hardest material worked by the ancient Egyptians into vessels.
  • Archaeologists frequently comment that the best workmanship of Ancient Egypt occurs in the earliest eras of that long lived civilisation, and in no area is it truer than the lovely hard stone vases and bowls made in predynastic times. Thousands were found in the earliest step pyramid of Djoser and they are some of the finest stonework ever produced by humans.
Materials vs. Times
vessel_materials.jpg


Basalt Vases
The rock hardness of deorite is 6 on the Mohs scale, and can be seen through a combination of its compressive strength: 100-300 Mpa (Megapascal), its tensile strength: 10-30 Mpa, and its shear strength: 20-60 Mpa, which denotes that depending on the mineral makeup, basalt rocks fall in the strong - very strong category.

basalt_vase.jpg

An Egyptian Black Basalt Jar, Predynastic Period (Nagada I)/ 1st Dynasty, circa 3500-2900 BC

Diorite Vases
The rock hardness of basalt is between 6 and 7 on the Mohs scale. Diorite is the name used for a group of coarse-grained igneous rocks with a composition between that of granite and basalt. Granite has less density than diorite. Granite is a coarser-grained rock material.

diorite_vase_egypt.jpg

Diorite Porphyry vase from predynastic Ancient Egypt, c. 3600 BC

Quartz Crystal Jar
This jar, and a vase are even harder to explain. It is rock quartz crystal, clearly shaped on a lathe. Quartz is 7 out of 10 on the Mohs scale of hardness, with diamond being 10. The tools used to shape had to have been harder than the quartz itself.

egyptian_quartz_crystal_dummy_offering_jar_old_kingdom_dynasty_vi_c.jpg quartz_vase.jpg
Old Kingdom, c. 2345-2181 B.C.

Mass Production
The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology alone, houses an estimated 80,000 objects. As you can imagine there are quite a few additional museums out there.

hard_rock_egyptian_vases_1.jpg

Schist Disk
The artifact below is one of many that confuse many academics because it does not fit in with the culture that supposedly made it, as in the Dynastic Egyptians. Found by Egyptologist Brian Walter Emery in 1936 at Saqqara, and referred to simply as a “schist disk” it has been described as a fruit plate, flower vase or even a candle holder. Schist is a hard, yet brittle layered stone which is very difficult to work. Most engineers who see this object believe it to be part of an ancient machine, yet the Dynastic Egyptians did not have such mechanisms…or did they?

schist_disk.jpg


Statues and Sarcophagi
Could not leave those out.

Statue_of_Gudea.jpg

Diorite statue of Gudea, Mesopotamia c. 2100 BC

Khafre_statue.jpg

Diorite statue of king Khafre 2500 BC

sarcophagus_1.jpg

sarcophagus_2.jpg

Princess Ankhnesneferibre sarcophagus (above) from Thebes, dated to the 26th Dynasty.
This box above, in the British Museum is presumably granite or other hard stone such as basalt.​

Official Tecnique
vasedrill.JPG

vasedrill2.JPG

vase_making_technique.jpg

Common Tools or Ancient Advanced Technology? How Did the Egyptians Bore Through Granite?
Ancient Egyptian Stoneworking Tools and Methods: Stone vase making
Diorite: Igneous Rock - Pictures, Definition & More
Ancient Egyptian Stone Technology - Lathe Turning - Spirit & Stone
Ancient Egyptian Vases from Saqqara, 2800BC - Quantum Gaze
Ancient Egypt: Stone vessels - the stone, the craftsmen, the tools, the vessels
Egyptian diorite vase. Archaeologists frequently...
Mohs Hardness Scale - Windows to the Universe


* * * * *

The Tools
ancient_egyptian_masonry_tools_2.jpg

Assisting instructions: How to cut stones, specially what tools to use for hard granite stones

The Rock
granite_rock.jpg

KD: For people like Salima Ikram and Zahi Hawass, as well as for every single related faculty out there. Why don't you grab a few of the above tools, a granite rock, and make us all a vase. One handmade diorite, granite, or quartz vase for the good of the humanity and for building trust does not appear too much to ask. This is such a simple request: turn the above into something similar to the below vase. Semi-naked uneducated Ancient Egyptians were making those by hundreds of thousands. I'm pretty sure your education and creativeness will help.

They did it 5,000 years ago.
Can you do it today?

diorite_vase_egypt_2.jpg

In case you do not know where to get a chunk of diorite, here is a pointer. Diorite was mined by the Egyptians in Aswan, and other places.

Myself, and I believe quite a few other people out there, doubt that it can be done with the level of technology your pseudo-Egyptology attributes to those Ancient Egyptians. In my opinion by officially assigning copper chisel-like tools to the makers of these artifacts, you (Egyptologists) are intentionally lying to the entire mankind. You mislead and hide the real history of this World.

If them Ancient Egyptians had totally different tools, or possessed a technology similar to producing some geopolymer type granite, diorite and such, the entire value of your teachings would go down the drain. Inevitably we would end up venturing into the "fruit of the poisonous tree" territory. If you are lying about these vases, than what else are you lying about?

truth-lies-liar-lying-quotes40-830x467.jpg


Please make a vase!
not asking for an obelisk, sarcophagus, or a statue
P.S. Please feel free to provide your local Egyptologist with a link to this thread :geek:
 

Verity

Well-known member
Messages
61
Likes
317
#2
"The methods employed by the Egyptians in cutting the hard stones which they so frequently worked, have long remained undetermined. Various suggestions have been made, some very impractical; but no actual proofs of the tools employed, or the manner of using them, have been obtained.

Flinders Petrie
father of modern archaeology
View attachment 9291
1853 – 1942

The typical method of working hard stones - such as granite, diorite, basalt, etc.- was by means of bronze tools; these were set with cutting points, far harder than the quartz which was operated on. The material of these cutting points is yet undetermined; but only five substances are possible - beryl, topaz, chrysoberyl, corindum or sapphire, and diamond. The character of the work would certainly seem to point to diamond as being the cutting jewel; and only the considerations of its rarity in general, interfer with this conclusion." - Petrie's Comments


Egyptology
Some universities and colleges offer degrees in Egyptology. In the United States, these include the University of Chicago, Brown University, New York University, Yale University and Indiana University. There are also many programs in the United Kingdom, including those at the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge, Swansea University, the University of Liverpool, and the University of London. While Egyptology is widely studied in continental Europe, only Leiden University offers English taught degree programs in Egyptology. Societies for Egyptology include:
  • The Society for the Study of Ancient Egypt
  • The Society for the Study of Ancient Egyptian Antiquities, Canada
  • Sussex Egyptology Society Online
  • Egypt Exploration Society
Let's take Yale and Oxford. So, who are the scholars teaching future proponents of the Ancient Egyptian concept?
With the small fry above, let's mention a couple contemporary behemoths of the Ancient Egyptian discipline:
  • Zahi Hawass
Zahi Hawass is an Egyptian archaeologist, an Egyptologist, and former Minister of State for Antiquities Affairs. He has also worked at archaeological sites in the Nile Delta, the Western Desert, and the Upper Nile Valley.
  • Salima Ikram
Salima Ikram is a professor of Egyptology at the American University in Cairo, a participant in many Egyptian archaeological projects, the author of several books on Egyptian archaeology, a contributor to various magazines and a frequent guest on pertinent television programs.
  • KD: do the above scholars and educators teach the truth, or merely provide deceiving theories and pseudo-scientific guesses?
Stone Cutting / Carving
One area for which the Egyptians are particularly famous, of course, is their stone working. A particularly controversial issue is how the ancient Egyptians were able to cut and bore through solid granite - which is considerably more difficult to do than cutting through softer, sedimentary rock such as limestone or sandstone.


The mainstream archaeological view is that it was done with copper, bronze, and wooden tools used by Egyptian masons today to cut granite. Others, however, have suggested that it was done with more advanced equipment that is yet to be discovered. For the time being, the balance of evidence seems to suggest the mainstream view that primitive metal and wooden tools used by common stone masons were sufficient for cutting through granite.

View attachment 9302
Reproduction Ancient Egyptian stone mason’s tools used for carving demonstrations.

View attachment 9343
Stone vessels were one of the most common items of funerary equipment used by the ancient Egyptians. The oldest examples are found in Lower Egypt at the settlement of Merimde Beni Salamais, dating to the Merimden period over 6000 years ago, and exhibit a low level of technical competency in their manufacturing (Hoffman 1979). During the rest of the Predynastic period (c. 4000-3000 BC) the quality of the manufacturing increased dramatically. The late Predynastic period of Upper Egypt was generally characterized by an increasing shift away from pottery of fine craftsmanship to stone vessels for use in tombs. This may reflect a shift in the direction of consumer demands of the elite, with an emphasis on exotic luxury goods for the afterlife, and the increasing economic difference between the ruling class and the rest of the populous (Hoffman 1979). As a result stone vessel manufacturing reached a high level of technical competency during the Early Dynastic (c. 3000-2700 BC) and Old Kingdom (c. 2700-2200 BC) periods, were they were made in very large numbers. After the Old Kingdom, stone vessels continued to be made, but on a much lesser scale.

The Early Dynastic period exhibits a wide degree of experimentation with different types of stone, including vein quartz, which was the hardest material worked by the ancient Egyptians into vessels.
  • Archaeologists frequently comment that the best workmanship of Ancient Egypt occurs in the earliest eras of that long lived civilisation, and in no area is it truer than the lovely hard stone vases and bowls made in predynastic times. Thousands were found in the earliest step pyramid of Djoser and they are some of the finest stonework ever produced by humans.
Materials vs. Times
View attachment 9318

Basalt Vases
The rock hardness of deorite is 6 on the Mohs scale, and can be seen through a combination of its compressive strength: 100-300 Mpa (Megapascal), its tensile strength: 10-30 Mpa, and its shear strength: 20-60 Mpa, which denotes that depending on the mineral makeup, basalt rocks fall in the strong - very strong category.

View attachment 9303
An Egyptian Black Basalt Jar, Predynastic Period (Nagada I)/ 1st Dynasty, circa 3500-2900 BC

Diorite Vases
The rock hardness of basalt is between 6 and 7 on the Mohs scale. Diorite is the name used for a group of coarse-grained igneous rocks with a composition between that of granite and basalt. Granite has less density than diorite. Granite is a coarser-grained rock material.

View attachment 9319
Diorite Porphyry vase from predynastic Ancient Egypt, c. 3600 BC

Quartz Crystal Jar
This jar, and a vase are even harder to explain. It is rock quartz crystal, clearly shaped on a lathe. Quartz is 7 out of 10 on the Mohs scale of hardness, with diamond being 10. The tools used to shape had to have been harder than the quartz itself.

View attachment 9326 View attachment 9327
Old Kingdom, c. 2345-2181 B.C.

Mass Production
The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology alone, houses an estimated 80,000 objects. As you can imagine there are quite a few additional museums out there.


Schist Disk
The artifact below is one of many that confuse many academics because it does not fit in with the culture that supposedly made it, as in the Dynastic Egyptians. Found by Egyptologist Brian Walter Emery in 1936 at Saqqara, and referred to simply as a “schist disk” it has been described as a fruit plate, flower vase or even a candle holder. Schist is a hard, yet brittle layered stone which is very difficult to work. Most engineers who see this object believe it to be part of an ancient machine, yet the Dynastic Egyptians did not have such mechanisms…or did they?

View attachment 9330

Statues and Sarcophagi
Could not leave those out.

View attachment 9334
Diorite statue of Gudea, Mesopotamia c. 2100 BC

View attachment 9333
Diorite statue of king Khafre 2500 BC

View attachment 9335
View attachment 9336
Princess Ankhnesneferibre sarcophagus (above) from Thebes, dated to the 26th Dynasty.
This box above, in the British Museum is presumably granite or other hard stone such as basalt.​


Common Tools or Ancient Advanced Technology? How Did the Egyptians Bore Through Granite?
Ancient Egyptian Stoneworking Tools and Methods: Stone vase making
Diorite: Igneous Rock - Pictures, Definition & More
Ancient Egyptian Stone Technology - Lathe Turning - Spirit & Stone
Ancient Egyptian Vases from Saqqara, 2800BC - Quantum Gaze
Ancient Egypt: Stone vessels - the stone, the craftsmen, the tools, the vessels
Egyptian diorite vase. Archaeologists frequently...
Mohs Hardness Scale - Windows to the Universe


KD: For people like Salima Ikram and Zahi Hawass, as well as for every single related faculty out there. Why don't you grab a few of the above tools, a granite rock, and make us all a vase. One handmade diorite, granite, or quartz vase for the good of the humanity and for building trust does not appear too much to ask. This is such a simple request: turn the above into something similar to the below vase. Semi-naked uneducated Ancient Egyptians were making those by hundreds of thousands. I'm pretty sure your education and creativeness will help.

They did it 5,000 years ago.
Can do you do it today?

View attachment 9345
In case you do not know where to get a chunk of diorite, here is a pointer. Diorite was mined by the Egyptians in Aswan, and other places.

Myself, and I believe quite a few other people out there, doubt that it can be done with the level of technology your pseudo-Egyptology attributes to those Ancient Egyptians. In my opinion by officially assigning copper chisel-like tools to the makers of these artifacts, you (Egyptologists) are intentionally lying to the entire mankind. You mislead and hide the real history of this World.

If them Ancient Egyptians had totally different tools, or possessed a technology similar to producing some polymer type granite, diorite and such, the entire value of your teachings would go down the drain. Inevitably we would end up venturing into the "fruit of the poisonous tree" territory. If you are lying about these vases, than what else are you lying about?

View attachment 9346

Please make a vase!
Like buttons don't begin to touch the love I have for this post.

I'm still trying to get off this excellent site almost three hours later..
Yesterday, reading a book that is always left open where I left it last, and which sits on a table in my kitchen and has taken me thus far c.6 months of a chapter here, a page there, (t'is a huge tome and I'm exceedingly busy) was this:

Masonry - 1.jpg

Oracle - Noun
  • A priest or priestess acting as a medium through whom advice or prophecy was sought from the gods in classical antiquity.
    1. A place at which divine advice or prophecy was sought.
    2. A person or thing regarded as an infallible authority on something.
      ‘he reigned supreme as the Colonial Office's oracle on Africa’
  • archaic A response or message given by an oracle, especially an ambiguous one.
Origin
Late Middle English: via Old French from Latin oraculum, from orare ‘speak’.

I am convinced that the hidden details to be deciphered in antiquated architecture are imperative to our understanding, and may, philosophically-speaking, lead the charge back to the start of the next Golden Age (to be expected after this dark Age of Degeneracy concludes at its earliest convenience).
 

Ice Nine

Well-known member
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1,564
#5
I can't even come up enough bad words to describe what I think of HawASS. What a tool! I'll leave it at that.

Yeah make us some vases..come on. I always wonder do these Quackedemics know they are lying or do they really believe this crap they are peddling?!?

Geopolymers (y)
 

dreamtime

Well-known member
Messages
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1,377
#6
Did the Great Pyramids' builders use concrete?

Zahi Hawass, head of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in Egypt, minced no words in assailing the concrete idea. "It's highly stupid," he said via a spokesman. "The pyramids are made from solid blocks of quarried limestone. To suggest otherwise is idiotic and insulting."
Ok Zahi, those are some convincing arguments, and your assessment is totally not insulting...
 

CyborgNinja

Well-known member
Messages
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764
#7
Geopolymer can explain the large walls and such but in my opinion much of these vases and busts were machined. I've worked with granite quite a substantial bit as a stone mason in the funeral industry. Granite is chosen because its heavy and its hard. If you build something from it, you can guarantee that its gonna last quite some time. Which is preferable when making grave markers like head stones.

From experience I can confirm that anything you want to make from a slab of granite can be done with the correct machine. You're gonna need at least a diamond head drill bit or blade and some type of rotating mechanism like a drill press to guide it. It's my opinion that the makers of these artifacts simply used straight forward techniques such as I have described. What is far less straight forward is how articulate these interiors are. We are talking about agile gimbal arm mounts.

robot-arm-drill-3d-image.jpg
A conventional drill head but mounted on a robot arm or what have you. Something that can reach in and around. A straight drill press down just isn't gonna cut it, which is where our current stone cutting technology is.

Further more, a geoploymer paste isn't gonna produce these flecked and speckled grains once hardened. I'm assuming this hypothetical geopolymer would be mixed in up like cake batter surely? When that then hardened the colour would be uniform all over. Unless maybe they threw in some white chunks to get that chocolate chip look. If I had to bet money I would confidently say the technique was at least 90% machining. Granted they could have cast the rough piece form geopoly but these other details are the work of drilling and such.

diorite_vase_egypt.jpg hard_rock_egyptian_vases_1.jpg
-------------------------------------------------------------​
Ah yes the Schist disk. Many are not aware but if you look closely you can see where Egyptology have very crudely repaired large sections of it. The lighter shade areas are just modern materials. Quite a large portion of this piece has never been recovered. A certain amount of artistic licence has been employed here.

schist_disk.jpg
Yes it does look mechanical in function but If I am not mistaken, the disk was moved from its original location and placed in the alleged tomb of one of the Pharaohs wives among other collected artifacts from various other sites. Something to do with a fraud, cant recall the details. Essentially we know nothing about where the disk came from, not to say it isn't authentic. Only its true back story may never be known.
----------------------------------------​
These guys are cool. Never seen the tiny man before but the alleged "Khafre" statue was found face down, upside down at the bottom of a garbage hole used in antiquity. I think the Egyptologists said the letter 'K' is crudely carved into the base so this proves the person depicted is Khafre. So there's about a 100% chance that it could actually be anybody else from history and they are just making a completely random connection.

Statue_of_Gudea.jpg Khafre_statue.jpg

These sarcophagi are potentially old egypt (before the flood) and the heiroglyphs were done later by the new kingdom people (1400-1500's based on our stolen history chronology.)

sarcophagus_1.jpg sarcophagus_2.jpg
------------------------------------------------

Tools.
Some have suggested that this rod thingy-ma-bob was used to cut the stone. It could be stuck and would vibrate like a tuning fork, thus the oscillations would travel down into the stone and split it or like heat melt through it in some way.

egypt rod 2.jpg rod egypt.jpg
Kinda like what is depicted here but with that rod instead of the wooden stick&stone arrangement egyptologist have these poor fellows using.

vasedrill2.JPG
 
OP
OP
KorbenDallas

KorbenDallas

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#8
The point of the OP was not to explain how hundreds of thosands of pots, vases, bowls, or hundreds of sarcophagi, or thousands of statues could have been made in reality.

It was rather to have our egyptologists to match the reality to their mouth, so to speak.

They are preaching certain techniques, which means that they supposedly believe it’s possible. If it is, let them show us how it’s done.
 

CyborgNinja

Well-known member
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#9
The point of the OP was not to explain how hundreds of thosands of pots, vases, bowls, or hundreds of sarcophagi, or thousands of statues could have been made in reality.

It was rather to have our egyptologists to match the reality to their mouth, so to speak.

They are preaching certain techniques, which means that they supposedly believe it’s possible. If it is, let them show us how it’s done.
Oh that makes sense.
 

BStankman

Well-known member
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#10
Did the Great Pyramids' builders use concrete?



Ok Zahi, those are some convincing arguments, and your assessment is totally not insulting...
How dare you question his authority? These blocks could not have possibly been cast in place.

barsoum_stone_blocks_f.jpg

It is a real shame AstroTurf Arab Spring had to save him.

These pots, I am not entirely sure we could replicate them today.

granite.jpg
 
OP
OP
KorbenDallas

KorbenDallas

Negotiator
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#11
Ring carved from carnelian and adorned with a resting Lion.
Egypt, 18th Dynasty. 1550 to 1292 BC.

~3500 year old
carnelian_ring.jpg

Mohs scale hardness 6 - 7
Carnelian is a brownish-red mineral commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone. Similar to carnelian is sard, which is generally harder and darker (the difference is not rigidly defined, and the two names are often used interchangeably). Both carnelian and sard are varieties of the silica mineral chalcedony colored by impurities of iron oxide. The color can vary greatly, ranging from pale orange to an intense almost-black coloration. It is most common in Brazil, India, Siberia and Germany.

grandegyptianmuseum: Ancient Egyptian lion ring...

KD: I would love to see the tools.
 

Will I am

Active member
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#15
I have been working in the metal cutting industry for 38 years working with carbide, diamond and ceramic cutters. After reading some of the responses to this post. I just want to point out that carbide has only been around since the 1950's and also carving stone is another hoax. Investment casting or molding while soft or even 3d printing better explains how these artifacts are made. I've spent a lot time this past year looking at grave stones and can clearly see the uniformity in grain structure as something that has to be man made. I think marble and granite buildings are made out castings. This link shows a NY library being built. Девелоперам. Надоел монолит? Вам снова в прошлое
 
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Will I am

Active member
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#17
Carving stone is a hoax. Having worked in metal cutting for 30+ years I can tell you carbide has only been around since the 1950's and diamond cutters only the last twenty years. Cast, molded or petrified organic material would make sense. I've been looking at grave stones for the past year or so and the uniformity in the grain structure is not natural. I would say it is a high tech concrete, same with marble and granite buildings, counter tops and surface plates used in precision inspection. I also live very close to a company that produces flat stone and I've been watching for few years how they blast ledge into small unusable pieces of rock. My guess is they are crushing it and mixing it with a liquid epoxy or geopolymer and casting it in the shape they want. The very best kept secrets are how almost everything we use is made. This grave stone caught my eye last year on the way to work. It was very early in the morning so the image is not that good. It is dated to the early 1930's and the round cylindrical shape got my attention as it looked almost new while the rest of it was very dated and molding up. What I noticed is through the years they have greatly improved the quality of these geopolymers.
1540856827401.jpg

Post automatically merged:

This is a link from Tech Dancer showing the construction of the New York public Library and some very good pictures showing these stones are cast or molded.
Девелоперам. Надоел монолит? Вам снова в прошлое

I would like to say you can machine stone, but it really is cost prohibitive when you consider tooling cost. I would love to see what process they are using to make all this man made stone.
 
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