Did Unicorns live a few hundred years ago?

John Jonston (in Polish, Jan Jonston; in Latin, Joannes Jonstonus (1603–1675) says they did. Who was Mr. Jonstonus? Sounds like he was a pretty serious scholar.

In 1632 Jonston traveled abroad with Bogusław and several other Commonwealth magnates' sons. Their first stop was Franeker (1632), followed by Leiden and Amsterdam (all, that same year), where Jonston published his Thautomatographia naturalis. In 1634 they visited England, returning to Leiden, where Jonston received an M.D. degree; soon afterward he would receive a second M.D. degree (ad eundem) from Cambridge. That year he also received a Ph.D. from both those universities, for his dissertation De febribus (On Fevers). Bogusław, Jonston and the others toured Europe until 1636, returning to Poland upon news of Bogusław's father's death. Jonston returned to Leszno, remaining a Leszczyński's retainer, in whose service he had the title of Archiater et Civitatis Lesnensis Physicus Ordinarius.

200px-Johnston_Portrait.jpg

In Leszno he was employed at the Leszno Academy, where he was a friend of Comenius, who was another important member of the Academy's faculty. In 1642 Jonston once again turned down an offer to chair a department abroad (this time, that of medicine at Frankfurt). That same year, his Idea universae medicinae practicae was published in Amsterdam (it would be translated into English in 1652). Jonston would turn down further offers from Heidelberg and Leiden. - says Wikipedia.

A Cambridge Alumni Database
. University of Cambridge : "Johnston, John (JHNN634J)"
For the full list of his scientific publications you can direct your attention to Wikisource.

Obviously it was a while back, and anyone's credibility could be questioned from one position or another. Yet, Mr. Joannes Jonstonus does not sound like some fantasy author of his generation. He sounds like a scientists who specialized in Flora, Fauna, Medicine, and some additional topics.

In his book Historiae naturalis de quadrupedibus libri, cum aeneis figuris, Johannes Jonstonus,... concinnavit (J. J. Schipperi, Amsterdam, 1657), which can be found at the New York Public Library he chose to depict quite a few differentanimals.


Among bears, squirrels, lions, cows, elks, rhinos, and other common animals,
Mr Jonstonus decided to present at least six different types of Unicorns
:
uni1-3.jpg

I understand that Unicorns are considered to be a mythical animal. Yet, they exist on multiple non-fictional paintings of the not so distant past. It is very easy to say, that the author was just imagining things and did not really mean that they were real. In his book he did not distinguish the unicorns in any way, shape or form. He simply included them along with other regular animals.

Other publications from not so long ago, also describe unicorns as regular animals.

Unicorn.jpg

Unicorns_Historie-11.jpg

The publication is clearly an interesting one. Obviously, some of the animals depicted by the author do not exist any more. Yet they do not look that different from the regular ones which are still in existence today.

Alexander the Great
Unicorn-Alexander_1.jpg

Source
According to legend, Alexander first encountered a Unicorn when he was about thirteen years old and one was presented for sale to his father Philip, king of Macedonia, by a Thessalian named Philonicus. Called Bucephalus on account of its horn (the name meaning literally, if not very poetically, Ox-head), the beast lashed out so furiously at every attempt to mount it that soon Philip's champion riders gave up and it was led away as wholly useless and intractable.

Alexander protested that they were missing a wonderful opportunity, for want of the skill and courage, to manage the creature properly.

At first Philip ignored him but, when he persisted, the king finally said a little angrily, 'Do you think you know so much better than all these grown champions?'

'I could manage this creature better than they have done,' Alexander said stubbornly.

Now Philip had not made the attempt himself because of a leg injury but he took his son's defiance personally and thought maybe it was time to teach him a lesson in humility, 'And if you fail,' he said, 'what will you forfeit for your rashness?'

'The whole price of the beast,' Alexander replied.
'Do you have thirteen talents the king asked, that being the Thessalian's asking price.

'No, but I will get it.'

'Very well, and if you succeed in taming Bucephalus you can have him as a gift.'

Laughter spread through the assembly with news of this wager and there was much debate over whether Alexander was wonderfully brave or simply mad. Many side bets were exchanged as Bucephalus was led on to the field, and not a few of them were on whether the boy would survive his wager, let alone win it.

Trumpets brayed for silence as Alexander strode confidently out on to the field. Small for his age, he looked a child beside the large Unicorn, but his confidence was not just bravado. He had taken notice of several ways in which, it seemed to him, previous attempts to tame the beast were misguided. Their biggest mistake was approaching Bucephalus as a horse whose will needed to be broken. In contrast, Alexander recognized that the Unicorn could only be ridden with its own consent. They had also thrown their cloaks over the creature's head before trying to mount it. So to prove he had no intention of doing this, Alexander unfastened his cloak and dropped it on the ground. He also made it obvious to Bucephalus that he carried no weapon, whip or rope on his person.

Another thing Alexander had noticed was that Bucephalus seemed nervous of the long shadows being cast by those around him. So when he took the bridle Alexander dismissed the handlers and turned so the low sun was directly in the Unicorn's eyes. Then, bowing from the waist, he said, 'Greetings noble beast. I come in friendship. Only permit me to ride on your back today and you may choose your freedom.'

Thus he remained, totally defenseless. The Unicorn stepped closer and lowered its head so the gleaming horn almost touched the skin over the boy's heart. There was a shifting in the crowd and a drawing of - strings by those bowmen posted by Philip to protect his son, but all knew that should the beast strike, nothing could save Alexander.

After what seemed a long while, Bucephalus suddenly lowered the point of his horn to the ground and, trembling, allowed the youth to spring on to his back. Once there, Alexander sat still for a while as they accustomed themselves to each other. Then Bucephalus leapt forward in a gallop that carried them away into the distance swifter, it seemed, than the wind. Many in the crowd feared never to see their impetuous prince again, but at last he turned in the distance and came riding back to cheers and rejoicing. The king, it is said, shed tears of joy and pride and, kissing the boy as he climbed down from the beast, cried, 'Oh my son, look out for a kingdom equal and worthy of you, for Macedonia is too small to contain you.'

Bucephalus remained with Alexander almost to the end of both their lives and was ridden by him into every major battle in his conquest of Egypt and the Persian Empire. Something of the Unicorn's temperament seems to have rubbed off on Alexander too. The young hero became famous for his fairness, restraint and clemency towards enemies who submitted to him.

In fact, the story of Bucephalus' capture during an expedition near the Caspian Sea is a perfect example of Alexander's noble behaviour. As he was in the habit of only riding the Unicorn when going into battle, Bucephalus was usually transported in style in a cage designed to prevent reckless soldiers from trying their luck in riding him. On this occasion, while Alexander was off exploring with the majority of his army, some raiders from the northern steppes carried off Bucephalus and his escort as prisoners. Alexander was so incensed that he sent word that if they were not returned, every man, woman and child of that nation would be put to the sword. The raiders, who had now seen the enormous size and might of the returning army, realized this was not an empty threat. They returned Bucephalus and his guards immediately, and also surrendered all their cities into Alexander's hands. Alexander's noble response was to treat them with all kindness and even to pay a ransom for Bucephalus.

Alexander also had connections with other Unicorns. One such beast, notable for the gem at the base of its horn, was presented to him on his travels by Queen Candace. There are also numerous Eastern accounts of him hunting the fierce Karkadarm, usually shown as a one-horned ox or rhinoceros. On occasion he also had to do battle with demonic Unicorns that were the manifestations of hostile spirits. With all these Unicornic associations it is ironic that Alexander should have survived all his battles only to succumb to poison at the tender age of thirty-two, but by then Bucephalus was no longer with him.

Legend and history agree that Bucephalus died in Alexander's last great battle with King Porus of India on the banks of the Jhelum or Hydaspes, one of the five great branches of the Indus River. Only the cause of his death is disputed, whether it was from wounds, age or simple exhaustion. Whichever it was, his demise marked a change in Alexander's fortunes. His legendary luck seemed to desert him and his character, which had begun to show signs of instability, took a rapid turn for the worse.

Alexander won the battle against Porus, but only just. It was his last great victory and after it his army refused to go any further. He was forced to turn back, but his decision to explore the coast on the way led to thousands of his troops perishing as they crossed the Makran desert in what is now southern Pakistan. Plutarch puts the number at 80,000 men and, although Alexander faced all hardships on equal terms with his men, the death toll did much to undermine support for him.

Back in the heart of the Persian Empire he set about restoring order. He employed some of his old magnanimity, but it was tempered by a good deal of new harshness which shocked many Greeks and Macedonians. Then, tiring of administration, he began organizing an expedition to circle Africa round to the gates of the Mediterranean. it was at this point he caught a fever which hardly seemed serious at first, but after ten days of steady deterioration he died.

After all he had risked it was an ignoble death, and rumours of poisoning soon began circulating, with the finger even being pointed at Aristotle as one of the instigators. Alexander's mother had many suspects put to death, but the full truth of the matter was never disclosed. And, sad to say, not that many people wanted to know For all his astonishing achievements it came as a relief to most of his generals and followers when Alexander died. It meant they could settle down to enjoy the fruits of their labours and carve up his empire just as described in Daniel's vision.


uni-3.jpg

1612 Source: Les Magnificences publiques du carrosel fait en la place royale de Paris


KD: I do entertain the possibility of their existence in the recent past. What's your opinion?
 
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  • AmusingMuse

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    Whow, just found a few more unicorns and a bunch of other stuff from this blog. KD, may I be so bold as to put in an article request? I went to duckduckgo.com and put in "16th century ornament print" and did not like what I saw. I can't seem to find a good explanation of why this "artwork" was made, but it is truly disturbing and I would love to hear your input. Thanks for this great blog, I've never seen anything like it!
     

    wallflower

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    Most if not all of the pictures and artwork I've seen show cloven hooves on the unicorn so they are supposedly not related to horses. They definitely lived not too long ago but what were they exactly? More like antelopes or goats I guess but their body shapes most often look like horses though not always. Rhinos supposedly are more closely related to horses than goats, pigs, cattle etc.
     

    BookDragon

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    Here's an interesting read that might answer some questions about the existence of unicorns. It's called "Historical Evidence For Unicorns" by Larry Brian Radka

    Bought it on Amazon. Here's the link: Historical Evidence for Unicorns

    (I'm not affiliated with Amazon in any way and won't make any money if you decide to buy the book.)

    And remember, the belief that you can own too many books is one of the biggest lies of our time. Happy reading!

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    Whow, just found a few more unicorns and a bunch of other stuff from this blog. KD, may I be so bold as to put in an article request? I went to duckduckgo.com and put in "16th century ornament print" and did not like what I saw. I can't seem to find a good explanation of why this "artwork" was made, but it is truly disturbing and I would love to hear your input. Thanks for this great blog, I've never seen anything like it!
    I am not sure what exactly was disturbing here.
     
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