Egyptologist, carve us a vase: stoneworking tools and methods

"The methods employed by the Egyptians in cutting the hard stones which they so frequently worked, have long remained undetermined. Various suggestions have been made, some very impractical; but no actual proofs of the tools employed, or the manner of using them, have been obtained.

Flinders Petrie
father of modern archaeology
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1853 – 1942

The typical method of working hard stones - such as granite, diorite, basalt, etc.- was by means of bronze tools; these were set with cutting points, far harder than the quartz which was operated on. The material of these cutting points is yet undetermined; but only five substances are possible - beryl, topaz, chrysoberyl, corindum or sapphire, and diamond. The character of the work would certainly seem to point to diamond as being the cutting jewel; and only the considerations of its rarity in general, interfer with this conclusion." - Petrie's Comments

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Egyptology
Some universities and colleges offer degrees in Egyptology. In the United States, these include the University of Chicago, Brown University, New York University, Yale University and Indiana University. There are also many programs in the United Kingdom, including those at the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge, Swansea University, the University of Liverpool, and the University of London. While Egyptology is widely studied in continental Europe, only Leiden University offers English taught degree programs in Egyptology. Societies for Egyptology include:
  • The Society for the Study of Ancient Egypt
  • The Society for the Study of Ancient Egyptian Antiquities, Canada
  • Sussex Egyptology Society Online
  • Egypt Exploration Society
Let's take Yale and Oxford. So, who are the scholars teaching future proponents of the Ancient Egyptian concept?
With the small fry above, let's mention a couple contemporary behemoths of the Ancient Egyptian discipline:
  • Zahi Hawass
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Zahi Hawass is an Egyptian archaeologist, an Egyptologist, and former Minister of State for Antiquities Affairs. He has also worked at archaeological sites in the Nile Delta, the Western Desert, and the Upper Nile Valley.
  • Salima Ikram
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Salima Ikram is a professor of Egyptology at the American University in Cairo, a participant in many Egyptian archaeological projects, the author of several books on Egyptian archaeology, a contributor to various magazines and a frequent guest on pertinent television programs.
  • KD: do the above scholars and educators teach the truth, or merely provide deceiving theories and pseudo-scientific guesses?
Stone Cutting / Carving
One area for which the Egyptians are particularly famous, of course, is their stone working. A particularly controversial issue is how the ancient Egyptians were able to cut and bore through solid granite - which is considerably more difficult to do than cutting through softer, sedimentary rock such as limestone or sandstone.

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The mainstream archaeological view is that it was done with copper, bronze, and wooden tools used by Egyptian masons today to cut granite. Others, however, have suggested that it was done with more advanced equipment that is yet to be discovered. For the time being, the balance of evidence seems to suggest the mainstream view that primitive metal and wooden tools used by common stone masons were sufficient for cutting through granite.

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Reproduction Ancient Egyptian stone mason’s tools used for carving demonstrations.

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Stone vessels were one of the most common items of funerary equipment used by the ancient Egyptians. The oldest examples are found in Lower Egypt at the settlement of Merimde Beni Salamais, dating to the Merimden period over 6000 years ago, and exhibit a low level of technical competency in their manufacturing (Hoffman 1979). During the rest of the Predynastic period (c. 4000-3000 BC) the quality of the manufacturing increased dramatically. The late Predynastic period of Upper Egypt was generally characterized by an increasing shift away from pottery of fine craftsmanship to stone vessels for use in tombs. This may reflect a shift in the direction of consumer demands of the elite, with an emphasis on exotic luxury goods for the afterlife, and the increasing economic difference between the ruling class and the rest of the populous (Hoffman 1979). As a result stone vessel manufacturing reached a high level of technical competency during the Early Dynastic (c. 3000-2700 BC) and Old Kingdom (c. 2700-2200 BC) periods, were they were made in very large numbers. After the Old Kingdom, stone vessels continued to be made, but on a much lesser scale.

The Early Dynastic period exhibits a wide degree of experimentation with different types of stone, including vein quartz, which was the hardest material worked by the ancient Egyptians into vessels.
  • Archaeologists frequently comment that the best workmanship of Ancient Egypt occurs in the earliest eras of that long lived civilisation, and in no area is it truer than the lovely hard stone vases and bowls made in predynastic times. Thousands were found in the earliest step pyramid of Djoser and they are some of the finest stonework ever produced by humans.
Materials vs. Times
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Basalt Vases
The rock hardness of deorite is 6 on the Mohs scale, and can be seen through a combination of its compressive strength: 100-300 Mpa (Megapascal), its tensile strength: 10-30 Mpa, and its shear strength: 20-60 Mpa, which denotes that depending on the mineral makeup, basalt rocks fall in the strong - very strong category.

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An Egyptian Black Basalt Jar, Predynastic Period (Nagada I)/ 1st Dynasty, circa 3500-2900 BC

Diorite Vases
The rock hardness of basalt is between 6 and 7 on the Mohs scale. Diorite is the name used for a group of coarse-grained igneous rocks with a composition between that of granite and basalt. Granite has less density than diorite. Granite is a coarser-grained rock material.

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Diorite Porphyry vase from predynastic Ancient Egypt, c. 3600 BC

Quartz Crystal Jar
This jar, and a vase are even harder to explain. It is rock quartz crystal, clearly shaped on a lathe. Quartz is 7 out of 10 on the Mohs scale of hardness, with diamond being 10. The tools used to shape had to have been harder than the quartz itself.

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Old Kingdom, c. 2345-2181 B.C.

Mass Production
The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology alone, houses an estimated 80,000 objects. As you can imagine there are quite a few additional museums out there.

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Schist Disk
The artifact below is one of many that confuse many academics because it does not fit in with the culture that supposedly made it, as in the Dynastic Egyptians. Found by Egyptologist Brian Walter Emery in 1936 at Saqqara, and referred to simply as a “schist disk” it has been described as a fruit plate, flower vase or even a candle holder. Schist is a hard, yet brittle layered stone which is very difficult to work. Most engineers who see this object believe it to be part of an ancient machine, yet the Dynastic Egyptians did not have such mechanisms…or did they?

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Statues and Sarcophagi
Could not leave those out.

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Diorite statue of Gudea, Mesopotamia c. 2100 BC

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Diorite statue of king Khafre 2500 BC

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Princess Ankhnesneferibre sarcophagus (above) from Thebes, dated to the 26th Dynasty.
This box above, in the British Museum is presumably granite or other hard stone such as basalt.

Official Tecnique
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KD: For people like Salima Ikram and Zahi Hawass, as well as for every single related faculty out there. Why don't you grab a few of the above tools, a granite rock, and make us all a vase. One handmade diorite, granite, or quartz vase for the good of the humanity and for building trust does not appear too much to ask. This is such a simple request: turn the above into something similar to the below vase. Semi-naked uneducated Ancient Egyptians were making those by hundreds of thousands. I'm pretty sure your education and creativeness will help.

They did it 5,000 years ago.
Can you do it today?

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In case you do not know where to get a chunk of diorite, here is a pointer. Diorite was mined by the Egyptians in Aswan, and other places.

Myself, and I believe quite a few other people out there, doubt that it can be done with the level of technology your pseudo-Egyptology attributes to those Ancient Egyptians. In my opinion by officially assigning copper chisel-like tools to the makers of these artifacts, you (Egyptologists) are intentionally lying to the entire mankind. You mislead and hide the real history of this World.

If them Ancient Egyptians had totally different tools, or possessed a technology similar to producing some geopolymer type granite, diorite and such, the entire value of your teachings would go down the drain. Inevitably we would end up venturing into the "fruit of the poisonous tree" territory. If you are lying about these vases, than what else are you lying about?

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Granite Drilling
It appears that our traditional historians are trying very hard to demonstrate that they know how them ancients worked granite-like stones. In their attempts they demonstrate their desperation. Fortunately our paycheck to paycheck society does not care, and these attempts do plug holes in the narrative.

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How about making this 8x5 foot hole in granite? It was allegedly done 1,300 years ago. If we were to believe the above pictured non-sense, this is the technology used.


But this video below is priceless. This, Ladies and Gentlemen, is how them ancients produced tens of thousands of their granite vases. Of course, the material used was Marble Breccia, but we would not expect them to use granite, wouldn't we? Brecciated marble, huh?
Russians take their narrative rather seriously, and protect it at all costs.
  • Total production time (Google Translated from here):
    • About six months, 6-8 hours per day, excluding 2 days off per week.
    • At least 2 months were spent on manufacturing and experimenting with tools.
Video title: How to make a solid stone vase? Olga Vdovina. Scientists vs. Myths 9-5.


nd here is one additional video to show the alleged stone-working technique used by them poor ancient Egyptians. This video is priceless as well.

Video title: How the ancient Egyptians crushed granite: reconstruction of "pounding"


Why wouldn't this guy take an extra step an make one of these? Wouldn't that be a nice finishing touch?

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NOTE: You can activate auto-translated subtitles by clicking the settings icon, and choosing your language.

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Subtitles in English
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Bonus: Elephantine is an island in the Nile River in southern Egypt. On this island there is a stone box made out of solid granite.
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Historians! Put your money where your mouth is.
Make a vase!

- not asking for an obelisk, sarcophagus, or a statue -
P.S. Please feel free to provide your local Egyptologist with a link to this article :geek:. Share it on Twitter, Facebook or Reddit.
 

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Has anyone done a physical and chemical analysis of vases and stuff? Maybe the Egyptians were able to make the stone softer, like plasticine? Or form its materials from a thick and viscous consistency.

Carving beyond possibilities.
 
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  • Gnosis

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    All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them.
    Why Giants were used 👇

    It is a metaphor of dwarfs standing on the shoulders of giants and expresses the meaning of "discovering truth by building on previous discoveries". This concept has been traced to the 12th century, attributed to Bernard of Chartres. Its most familiar expression in English is by Isaac Newton in 1675: "If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants."

    Been researching this Rabbit Hole for over 30+ bona fide years. Been to the Pyamides @ Giza & other Garden Spots in Egypt. Walked upon the Aggregated Stones myself. I will help solve the answers to the questions & leave the evidence/facts/truth of how they were built & how the Obelisks were carved. It wasn’t exclusively by tool or Alien technology. Stone Mason’s of that era had Trade Secrets / Skillsets & Trade Craft that has bee deliberately hidden. I’ll leave it right here for those who are indepnedant critical thinkers to unravel the Gordian Knot of enigma’s & deception for themselves.
    This mystery was solved long ago but as usual suppressed by Masonic controlled education system. Dr. David Davoditts solved it & replicated the construction of Aggregated Geopolymer Cultured stones in multiple experiments. I’m not going to elaborate ad nauseam here showing all the links & spoon feeding people. Read & reasearch the entire compendium of Knowledge I laid out then after disgusting them copious material if any questions arise I’ll point people after they do the work for themselves

    I already posted this material before here on SH & not to many followed up on it or even showed any real interest before. Like dust in the wind the knowledge & information gets passed by & never really digested or absorbed which is frustrating to say the least

    #1 Zahi Hawass is a complete fraud.

    #2 The Famine Stele reveal the precise formula as to how the Pyramids were con
    #3 Knowledge of Stone Mason secrets & natural quarries of Kaolinitic clays, or on residual eroded granite rocks are the keys to solving the enigma/codundrum/mystery), low in iron content, as promoted until now. The use of the enormous geological layers that constitute the ferralitic or lateritic rocks and soils is a need. Rock-based geopolymeric binder or cement of the type (Ca,Na,K)-poly (ferro-silico-aluminate) (Fe-O-Si-O-Al-O-) are geopolymeric compounds in which part of the Al atoms is substituted by Fe atoms, with the approximate formula
    (Ca,Na,K]•(-Fe-O)x•(-Si-O-(Al-O)(1-x)]•(-Si-O)y

    #6 Google Fu is your friend, learn how to use it to research & read rather than depend on other’s to give you all the answers.

    #5 Dr. David Davoditts legendary stellar scholarly work:
    #6 Is the Sphinx Legend real or was it reconstructed from Anubis a Egyptian Jackal (which is a literal Wolf metaphor) guardian & ruler of the underworld ?

    #7 Who created & taught at Lyceum - the advanced schools of knowledge of Greece ? Why was it called Lyceum ? What is Lykelios mean in Greek ? Why the Wolf metaphor ? Who were the two founders of Rome ? Why did Alexander the Great go to Lyceum to be educated ? Why was Vulgar Latin created ? Etc. it all connects …Go for it & learn the knowledge of how it was done & why.
     
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